09 May 2014

Updated C-123 Agent Orange Document List - corrects broken links

Updated C-123 Agent Orange Document List - corrects broken links:

The C-123 Veterans Association

Chronology Of C-123 Agent Orange Exposure Documents (this list)

Three bases were used for these warplanes: Westover AFB, Chicopee, MA, Pittsburgh Airport, PA and Rickenbacker AFB, Ohio. Each base had maintenance squadrons, and Westover AFB and Pittsburgh AFB also had aeromedical evacuation squadrons. Unit commanders and senior enlisted leaders have estimated their veterans total 2100 men and women, mostly aged between 45-80 years of age.
 42% of all post-Vietnam C-123 aircraft had been Agent Orange spray airplanes during the war. VA awards service connection to veterans evidencing a source of Agent Orange contamination, exposure to that contamination, and an Agent Orange-presumptive illness (Title 38 3.09.) 

The C-123 Veterans Association is an informal association of former aircrews (including flight surgeons and aeromedical evacuation crews,) maintenance and aerial port personnel, advocating for recognition by the Department of Veterans Affairs of presumptive service connection for Agent Orange illnesses experienced by our members.VA opposes C-123 veterans' claims by refusing to recognize exposure, redefined in 2012 by VA to include the toxicological event of “bioavailability” as a component of exposure...no bioavailability proof equals denied exposure claim. The laws and Federal Register (8 May 2001 & 31 Aug 2010) only address "exposure" thus the VA redefinition to exclude exposures where veterans cannot prove bioavailability. The Director, National Toxicology Center calls this unique definition "unscientific."

18 April 2014. Institute of Medicine Agent Orange C-123 study committee announced per charge from the Department of Veterans Affairs. Report to Secretary of Veterans Affairs due September 30 2014.
15 April 2014. Email VA VBA official refuses to request updated JSRRC exposure confirmation, directs veteran to resolve via Board of Veterans Appeals instead (two to three year delay.) VA and JSRRC have resisted legislative requests for updating JSRRC data.
11 Mar 14.  Air Force Times, Vets Battle VA on Post-Vietnam Agent Orange claims. Reporter Patricia Kime details C-123 history, contamination, testing and VA reactions to C-123 veterans’ exposure claims.
10 Mar 14.  VA Modifies Web Pages re: Institute of Medicine C-123 Study addressing Agent Orange modified to mention referral of C-123 issue to the Institute of Medicine for a late 2014 report.
19 Feb 14. Environmental Research, C-123 Exposures Confirmed; exposures occurred aboard post-Vietnam C-123s used during the Vietnam War for spraying Agent Orange, and which remained contaminated with TCDD. Subsequent commentary and response to the commentary.
14 Feb 14.  Emails between VA Public Affairs and Wes Carter/C-123 Veterans Association addressing VA definition of “exposure.” Public Affairs referred Carter back to VA Public Health which had previously defined exposure as “contamination field + bioavailability.” (withheld)
14 Feb 14. Privacy Complaint filed by C-123 veterans with VA’s National Center for Ethics in Health Care, regarding outside contractor access to patient records (withheld)
7 Feb 14. Ethics concerns reported to VA National Center for Ethics in Health Care, submitted by C-123 veterans to VA National Center for Ethics in Health Care, suggesting intrinsic and extrinsic ethical failures, especially regarding VA deception regarding ATSDR and NIESH findings supporting C-123 veterans’ claims. Center declined involvement, suggested referral to VA IG which took no action. Note the ethical failure described is the VA's and not the contractor!
5 Feb 14. LtGen Judith Fedder, correspondence between DOD and C-123 Veterans Association. Again refuses request for DOD designation of C-123 fleet as “Agent Orange Exposure Sites.”
18 Jan 14.  Yale Law Veterans Legal Clinic C-123 Report; detailed legal brief, prepared under supervision of Law School Dean Michael Wishnie, confirms eligibility for herbicide exposure benefits for C-123 veterans establishing fact-proven exposure and presumptive service connection
15 Jan 14.  Correspondence: C-123 veterans requested that VA General Council Mr. Hipolit suggest claims be managed more in line with law, pointing out various illegal procedures used to deny claims. Mr. Hipolet declined to intervene, suggested concerns be resolved through appeals to Board of Veterans Appeals rather than corrected at source
10 Jan 14.  General Overview of Connection Between Exposure, Metabolism and Bioaccumulation. Prof. R.S. Pollenz, University of South Florida. Explains why bioavailability is not part of the toxicological event of exposure
28 Dec 13.  C-123 Update: Senator Bennett, Colorado. Senator’s briefing: C-123 Veterans Association. General background of C-123 issue for US Senator Bennett. The Association updates a similar document when seeking assistance from senators and congressmen
24 Dec 13.  VA21-4138 Request, JSRRC  Memo Request.pdf  C-123 Veterans to Mr. Dominic Baldini, Chief, Joint Services Records Research Center, Fort Belvoir, VA. Requests his agency prepare a memorandum for record, similar to the one addressing Blue Water Navy, for insertion in VA 21-1MR for VARO guidance on C-123 claims. Mr. Baldini declined. Earlier requests to VA for a JSRRC memo were declined. Requests to the US Army Congressional Liaison Office by Senators Burr and Merkley staff were rebuffed…VA does not want such a memorandum to exist.
1 Dec 13.  C-123: Decades of Deception; free iTunes eBook by Major Wes Carter, C-123 Veterans Association. Covers Agent Orange contamination of C-123 post-Vietnam and effort by veterans to earn VA service connection for Agent Orange illnesses. Also available as PDF
Nov-Dec 13.  The Officer, "First Step Towards a Grassroots Victory" Reviews efforts by C-123 Veterans Association and first successful claim, LtCol Paul Bailey
13 Nov 13.  McMinnville (Oregon) News-Register, News story about C-123 veterans’ claims
16 Aug 13. C-123 Veterans Response to VA Contractor Report “Investigations Into Allegations by C-123 Veterans”, by Al Young Consultants, dated 12 Nov 2012
7 Aug 13. Steve Vogel The Washington Post article,“VA Reverses C-123 Agent Orange Claim” (re: Paul Bailey, Bath, NH)
5 Aug 13. Steve Vogel The Washington Post article, “Agent Orange’s Reach Beyond the Vietnam War”
31 Jul 13. Rating Decision, Manchester VARO (approval). Paul A. Bailey, reversed after evaluation by Decision Review Officer, awarded 100% disability backdated to date first applied; first known C-123 claim approved without resort to BVA appeal
22 Jul 13. Bailey Proof Set by C-123 Veterans Association. Establishes Agent Orange contamination of 731st TAS aircraft, contamination of C-123s, assignment of former Ranch Hand aircraft to 731st TAS and various agency proof statements (HQ AFRC, USAF Historical Records Research Center, etc.)
22 Jul 13: Statements US PHS commissioned officers confirming C-123 veterans' exposure; USPHS commissioned officers are members of the Armed Services and their evidence satisfies JSRRC requirements for acceptable evidence. Both statements are from senior Public Health Service physicians (RADM R. Ikeda, CAPT A. Miller)
17 Jul 13: C-123 Veterans' Detailed Response to Secretary Shinseki's Letter to Senator Burr re: VA C-123 Perspective (dated 7 Jun 13) (note: 48mb)
30 Jun 13. USAF Historical Records Research Agency confirmation C-123s were used for Operation Ranch Hand; flight orders, other historical documents satisfying SECVA concern about veterans' proof of duty aboard known contaminated aircraft
24 June 13: Official Email, RADM (Dr) R. Ikeda, Director, CDC/Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry, reaffirming ATSDR finding that C-123 aircrews were exposed
13 Jul 13. C-123 Veterans' Radio Interview, Portland KBOO Radio
11 Jul 13. Reporter Lynne Peeples Huffington Post, “Veterans Sick from Agent Orange-Poisoned Planes Still Seek Justice.” Reviewed C-123 contamination and VA position against veterans' claims of exposure to dioxin
25 June 13. FOIA response to C-123 Veterans Association. This FOIA responder wrote VA has no rule keeping C-123 crews from admission to the Agent Orange Registry. Post Deployment Health had earlier instructed VAMC to not permit C-123 veterans any Agent Orange Registry exam, in which she overturned an earlier order from the Secretary of Veterans Affairs. However, veterans claims are denied with the language, "VA regulations do not permit," contrary to the FOIA assurance
13 June 13. Boilerplate language provided by Veterans Benefits Administration to regional offices with instructions to deny all C-123 veterans' claims, regardless of merit or evidence or law
7 June  13. Official Letter, Secretary Eric Shinseki to Senate Veterans Affairs Committee, detailing basis of VA policy against C-123 veterans' Agent Orange exposure service connection
20 May 13. Official Letter, Mr. Cameron Smith, Director Oregon Department of Veterans Affairs, calling on Secretary of Veterans Affairs to recognize C-123 veterans' exposure and offering detailed justifications
9 May 13. Email VA VBA, detailing JSRRC procedures for refusing non-military US gov't documentation re: C-123 veterans' exposure. JSRRC will not correct earlier errors, veterans can appeal (takes another two years). Net effect is negative JSRRC report dooms veterans' claims to lengthy delays
11 Mar 13. Official NIH Letter, CAPT Aubrey Miller MD MPH, US Public Health Service/NIH, Senior Medical Advisor to National Institutes of Health National Toxicology Program. “Veterans were exposed”
6 Mar 13 Official Finding, Director Dr. Christopher Portier, CDC/Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry, to Mr. Dominic Baldini, Director, Joint Services Records Research Center, confirmed C-123 contamination, veterans’ Agent Orange exposure, and increased cancer risk; followed up on Deputy Director Dr. Tom Sinks’ earlier letter, same subject and same conclusions
14 Mar 13. Sample VA Rating Decision Portland VARO (denial) Maj. W. Carter, denial repeated after reconsideration; denied veteran’s claim re: service connection for Agent Orange exposure while flying the dioxin-contaminated C-123, 1974-1980
28 Feb 13. VA Rating Decision (Denial) LtCol Paul Bailey of Bath NH, Manchester NH Regional Veterans Administration Office; denied veteran’s claim re: service connection for Agent Orange exposure while flying the dioxin-contaminated C-123, 1974-1980. VA stated regulations prohibited C-123 veterans claims (no such regulation exists); rejected all evidence from physicians and scientists after labeling it "unacceptable lay evidence"
19 Feb 13. Expert Medical Opinion by Dr. Mark Garzotto MD, VA Director Oncology Urology & Dioxin Researcher, Portland VARO. Veteran's C-123 exposure likely related to exposure to Agent Orange"
10 Jan 13. Letter, Director VA Compensation Services to Dr. J. Stellman, dismissing all of Dr. Stellman’s and colleagues’ findings confirming C-123 veterans’ exposure, repeats denial of exposure citing “thorough study of all available scientific literature” relied upon by VA’s Health Benefits Administration study
6 Jan 13. C-123 Veterans' Presentation to the Agent Orange Committee of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies; brief on C-123 contamination and veterans' exposure, with details on VA position against claims
3 Jan 13. Expert Medical Opinion, Prof. Arnold Schecter M.D., Univ. of Texas School of Public Health; “aircrews were exposed”
15 Oct 12. Letter on Behalf Secretary of the Air Force by MG Tod Wolters, Director Legislative Liaison to Senator Richard Burr Ranking Member Senate Veterans Affairs Committee, dismisses concerns raised re: command interference, scientific integrity, Stated AF and ATSDR findings "consistent" although ATSDR concluded vets exposed, but AF said not. Dismissed "a danger to public health" statement re: 1994 Patches study saying toxicologists meant for restoration workers only, however toxicologists Porter and Weisman confirmed by email their recommendations were for all personnel in or around aircraft
12 Nov 12. Investigation Report on C-123 by Al Young Consultants to VA Compensation Services Mr. James Sampsel. Confirmed his 2004, 2009, 2010 & 2011 opinions re: no exposure, too little dioxin, no dioxin on aircraft
9 Nov 12. Letter, Allison Topper, PhD, Chief Hazard Evaluations & Technical Assistance Branch, EPA. Repeated and deferred to opinion by Dr. Sinks and ATSDR – aircrews were exposed
9 Nov 12.  EXPERTS' JOINT LETTER, Ten scientists & five physicians challenge to VA re: poor scientific procedures used to deny Agent Orange exposure finding to C-123 veterans, cover letter authored by Dr. Jeanne Stellman, Columbia University
3 Oct 12. Expert Independent Opinion, Dr. Wayne Dwernychuk, Hatfield Environmental Consultants (retired). Confirmed C-123 contamination and aircrew exposure to dioxin
1 Oct 12. Letter VA Under Secretary for Benefits Allison Hickey to W. Carter; explained no legal basis exists for acknowledging C-123 exposures, studies indicate "low probability" of AO biologically available, VA unable to extend AO recognition
25 Sept 12. Advisory Opinion, Director VA Compensation & Pension Services. Explains  TCDD is harmless, scientists’ expert opinions are unacceptable when considering C-123 veterans’ claims. Rejected ATSDR findings, and did not address NIESH finding at all.
29 Jun 12. Agent Orange Exposure Claim Denial, Les Howe. VA denied claims for Agent Orange presumptive illnesses by not recognizing exposure claim
1 Jun 12. Sample VA Rating Decision (Denial) re: Major W. Carter by Portland VARO, repeated after reconsideration, denied veteran’s claim re: service connection for Agent Orange exposure while flying the dioxin-contaminated C-123 between 1974-1980
. Includes example of boilerplate claim denial language
6 May 12. Agent Orange: 50 Year History & Current Concerns, poster display (no peer review or juried evaluation) at San Francisco SOT, argued against C-123 veterans exposure via ”dry dioxin transfer.” First known use of VA redefinition of "exposure" to include, unique to VA, requirement of bioavailability to be proven for exposure to be acknowledged
1 May 12. Distribution Memorandum and Consultative Letter Post Vietnam C-123 Aircraft Agent Orange Exposure, MG Thomas Travis MD CFS, Deputy Surgeon General USAF, reviews USAFSAM report for Senator Burr; the USAFSAM report discounted any kind of exposure risk; General Travis opts not to inform exposed C-123 veterans to spare  “undue distress”
4 Mar 12. Independent Scientific Opinion, Dr. Fred Berman, Director, Toxicology Department, Oregon Health Sciences University. Confirms aircraft contamination and aircrew exposure therein. With attachments
22 Feb 12. Scientific Review of Agent Orange in C-123 Aircraft, VA Public Health announcement of low probability of crew TCDD exposure and unlikely long-term health problems from the contamination
7 Feb 12. Expert Independent Opinion, Dr. Jeanne Stellman, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University. Confirmed aircraft contamination and aircrew exposure
26 Jan 12. Official Letter Agency Finding by Dr. T. Sinks, Deputy Director Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, that C-123 aircraft were contaminated, aircrews exposed, and exposure even higher before first test were completed; estimated 200-fold greater cancer risk than screening value for exposed aircrews
I9 Dec 11. Expert Independent Scientific Opinion, Dr. J Goeppner (LtCol, USA Chemical Corps, Ret), confirming aircrew exposure to harmful levels of dioxin
5 Dec 11. Air Force Times, article about C-123 veterans' filing IG complaint regarding their exposures
26 Oct 11. Email, Weisman to Major W. Carter, Dr. Wade Weisman explaining his C-123 toxicological survey in 1994 of C-123 tail #362 at USAF Museum, determining “heavily contaminated” with dioxin and an exposure threat to visitors, employees, restoration workers
19 Aug 11.  VA M21-1MR VA Disability General Claims Process. Manual used by VA Regional Offices and Board of Veterans Appeals in managing disability claims process. Contains policies and procedures explaining VA processes and decision cycles, including  Part IV, Subpart II, Chapter 2, Section C dealing with herbicide exposures, Vietnam and elsewhere .
 7 Sept 11. New England Public Radio Interview with Springfield Republican reporter "Westover C-123 Vets Fighting for Agent Orange Benefits
27 Jul 11. USAF Press Deception – Destruction of the Agent Orange C-123 Fleet. Details the destruction in June 2010 of all remaining toxic C-123 cargo airplanes, and the efforts by Hill AFB and Davis-Monthan AFB public affairs personnel, unit leaders and the Office of Secretary of Defense Consultant to complete the process without any attention from the media, their accomplished goal being a non-event as the Agent Orange aircraft were shredded and smelted.
22 Jul 11.  C-123 Destruction- Press Deception. Reviews efforts by Hill AFB and Davis-Monthan AFB officials to prevent or minimize publicity associated with destruction of all remaining toxic C-123s in June 2010. Special Public Affairs efforts, guided by the OSD Consultant, eliminated words like “Agent Orange, Dioxin,” and TCDD so the final press release, innocently announcing the recycling of the airplanes, wasn’t even released…it was held in case of media inquiry
10 July 11. Email VA Agent Orange consultant to correspondent, describes C-123 veterans as "trash-haulers, freeloaders looking for a tax-free dollar from a sympathetic congressman," veterans “for whom he "has no respect." Wrote veterans wanted Congress "to feel sorry for them and encourage DVA to pay them off"
9 Jun 11. Official Letter. Dr. Linda Birnbaum, Director Nat’l Institute of Environmental Health, and Director National Toxicology Program, concluding “exposure is assumed based on wipe-tests demonstrating high dioxin concentrations in the C-123Ks. VA completely ignores the NIESH finding
1 June 11. HQ, Air Force Reserve Command FOIA Response re: C-123 Agent Orange Background, report confirms aircraft assigned to 731st TAS dispersed “chemical defoliants” over Southeast Asia
25 May 11. Independent Professional Opinion, Dr. Fred Berman to Secretary of Air Force; confirmed C-123 contamination and aircrew exposures
31 Aug 10. Federal Register, page 53205. Details VA statement that TCDD-exposed veterans will be treated, as with Vietnam War veterans, with presumptive service connection for recognized Agent Orange illnesses
22 Jun 10. Congressional Research Service,    Congressional Research Service analysis of VA’s military herbicide benefit programs. Covers non-Vietnam veterans on page 7.
15 Dec 09. Email, Mr. Karl Nieman to Mr. Wayne Downs, re: value of C-123 engines and possible parting-out.  Herbicide Characterization of UC-123K Aircraft, Phase I
12 Nov 09. Memorandum and Support Paper Mr. Wm Boor to AMARG/CC requesting “special handling for UC-123K aircraft because of Agent Orange.” All the C-123s were smelted as toxic waste May 2010. Boor repeated the consultant’s (Senior Consultant to Office of Secretary of Defense) comments about preventing veterans’ claims
2 Oct 09. Email Major General A. Busch concurring re: destruction scheme for C-123 toxic aircraft. We are going to Alaska
12 Aug 09. Staff Summary to variety of AF offices by Mr. Wm Boor, Director 505th Aircraft Sustainment Squadron; recommends immediate recycling and smelting of all C-123s
5 Aug 09. Position Paper by Mr. Wm Boor, Director 505th ACSS. States justification for immediate destruction of toxic C-123 fleet, including recommendation by the consultant regarding preventing veterans' awareness so as to block VA claims
27 Jul 09. Memorandum, Dr. Alvin Young to Mr. Wm. Boor, re: disposal of UC-123K aircraft. Recommends no add’l sampling to safe money and to avoid necessity of designating even more aircraft as toxic if contamination confirmed
July 09. Final Dioxin & Herbicide Report Characterization of UC-123K Aircraft, Phase I, Dr. W. Downs, 75CEG HAZMAT Program Management
26 Jun 09. Memorandum, Dr. Alvin Young to Mr. Jim Malmgren, 505th ACSS re: Decision Memo for Contaminated UC-123K Aircraft. Discussed disposal of aircraft, specifically for preventing veterans’ awareness re: VA exposure claims
24 Jun 09. Memo for the Record by Doctors W. Downs & Karl Nieman. Summarizes Jim Malmgren’s presentation and response to comments
Jun 2009. VA21-1MR,part 3. VA regulations regarding exposure disability ratings
May 09. Item of Interest: UC-123K PowerPoint briefing slide, Ogden Air Material Center. Notes concern that Arizona and EPA inspectors might discover quarantine toxic C-123s, possible fines (other memos detail the potential $3.4 billion EPA fine
24 Feb 09. Decision Memorandum OSD Consultant, to Major C. McCrady. Suggests need for speedy destruction of aircraft, proper wording of press release for media to avoid terms such as Agent Orange, TCDD and Dioxin. Concerns about veterans' discovery of previous exposures
Dec 08. Site Safety Health Plan by AQS re: UC-123 Aircraft at Davis-Monthan AFB AZ. Characterized safety and hazardous materials situation
11 Nov 08. Department of Defense Instruction 6055.05 – Occupational and Environmental Health. Management guide for DOD occupational and deployment health issues. Defines exposure on p. 20.
21 Aug 08. Health Effects of Dioxin Exposure. Department of Defense health advisory addressing routes of exposure; acknowledges adverse health effects
Aug 08. UC-123 HAZMAT Safety Plan, Mr. Wayne Downs, 75ABW/CEG and Mr. Karl Neiman, Select Engineering Layton, UT. Reviewed contamination & dioxin tests, C-123s moved into AMARG quarantine area
Apr 08. Prof. Ben Quick, "Agent Orange: A Chapter from History That Just Won't End", review of the USAF Boneyars at Davis-Monthan AFB AZ, quarantine storage area for toxic C-123s after their retirement
5 Nov 07. Board of Veterans Appeals Citation 0734812. Award of Agent Orange service connection claim to C-123 veteran, Hanscom & Westover AFB
23 Aug 07. Board of Veterans Appeals denial of claim by LtCol Aaron Olmsted re: Agent Orange exposure. "Veteran failed to prove his C-123 was in Vietnam or that it sprayed Agent Orange." Subsequent submission of that proof has been ignored by the BVA, the VA attorney at the BVA and the VA regional director
13 Jun 07. Board of Veterans Appeals Citation 0717857. Award of Agent Orange service connection claim to C-123 veteran, Pittsburgh Air Reserve Station
Undated. Fairchild C-123K Provider, Fact Sheet from USAF Museum about Tail #362 ("Patches") and its Ranch Hand history. This aircraft was the principal subject over decades between 1979-1997 for AO contamination studies
2005. Validating Dermal Exposure Assessment for Dioxin": Organohalogen Compounds vol 25. Reviewed testing procedures for determining dioxin contamination of surfaces and subsequent exposures.
24 Nov 04. Official ISEA Glossary of Epidemiology Terms, including exposure
2004. "Surface Dust Criterial for Dioxin" measurements, Organohalogen Compounds Vol 55. Detailed testing scheme under which C-123 interiors measured 8x safety suggestion for interior surface dioxin contamination
31 Jul 03. Study Memorandum for AOO-ALCD/LCD from AFIOS. 100% contamination of all surfaces tested at Air Force Museum; contamination of remaining surplus planes, concerns about contaminated ground soil, etc
8 May 01. The Federal Register, page 23166. Details by VA statement of commitment to treat herbicide-exposed veterans exposed outside the scope of the Vietnam War, the same as Vietnam veterans. Key word = exposure, thus VA denies exposure to avoid honoring this statement
24 Apr 00. GSA Hearing Judge Order; directed USAF to stop sale of contaminated C-123s. USAF Toxicologist Dr. Ron Porter testified the C-123 fleet was "a danger to public health." C-123 classified as "extremely hazardous."
17 Feb 99. Memo by "Judy" at USAF Surgeon General with supporting documents regarding Davis-Monthan AFB civilian employee IG complaint regarding their exposures working in the C-123 HAZMAT quarantine area
Feb 99.  ATSDR: Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins. VA data sheet on dioxins; addresses routes of exposure and carcinogenetic properties of TCDD
10 Oct 97. Memorandum from Vice Commander USAF Security Assistance Center to Secretary of the Air Force, details foreign sales sensitivities regarding Agent Orange C-123s, and steps taken by Davis-Monthan to quarantine remaining warplanes
5 Aug 97. Memorandum from Vice Commander USAF Security Assistance Center to Secretary of the Air Force. Discusses potential problems selling foreign air force the toxic USAF C-123 aircraft
18 Mar 97. Memorandum Dr Ron Porter to AFCM/SG re: Toxicologist Health Risk Assessment/Armstrong Laboratory. Concludes “potential for individual exposure to associated with residues of past mission activities”. 
12 Mar 97. Letter from Major U. Moul JAG Office of Environmental Law to Western Aviation informing them Agent Orange aircraft previously sold then could not be delivered
10 Mar 97. Interoffice Memo Mr. David Kumar AFMC to Mr. Tom Lorman AFMC, discusses disposal options of toxic C-123s, sales to Disney Films, suggestion to "cocoon" the aircraft permanently, quarantine and store at Davis-Monthan AFB
10 Jan 97. Memorandum forAMARC/CD, from Brig. Gen. D. Haines, disposition of contaminated C-123 aircraft. Discusses sale by State Department & other agencies of toxic airplanes. Directed AF to quarantine into HAZMAT storage and seal all remaining C-123s
8 Jan 97. Memorandum of Caution from Ms. Peggy Lowndes, General Services Administration to Major U. Moul, Staff Judge Advocate, AF Office of Environmental Law; describes GSA sales of aircraft to Disney
30 Dec 96. Note, Brigadier General O. Waldrop, Brigadier General O. Waldrop Staff Judge Advocate HQ AFMC to BG Harris, “the political risk, cost of litigation and potential tort liability of third parties make FMS disposal of contaminated aircraft imprudent”
26 Dec 96. Memo from Brigadier General Todd Stewart HQ/AFMC/CE to Brigadier General Hanes, HQ AFMC/LG regarding sale of contaminated aircraft as inappropriate, unjustified double standard
18 Dec 96. Letter, Major U. Moul to Mr. Doug Boylan GSA Sales, advising GSA of need to cancel sale of ten surplus UC-123K due to Agent Orange contamination
5 Dec 96. Memorandum, Mr. Ralph Shoneman Executive Director to HQ AFMC/LGH, Disposition of Dioxin Contaminated C-123 Aircraft
31 Oct 96. JAG Memorandum from Major S. Gempote, Office of the Command Surgeon AFMC. Addresses contaminated C-123K at AMARC, concerns re: military and civilian workers and C-123 dioxin contamination
31 Oct 96. Memorandum from Mr. R. Schoneman Executive Director AMARC for HG AFMC/LtGen Farrell re: “disposal contaminated C-123 aircraft” Dioxin-contaminated C-123K aircraft sold by GSA to general public
30 Oct 96. Memorandum from JAG Major U. Moul, AFMC/LOG/JAV to ESOH C&C: JAG (USAF Office of Environmental Law) attorney Major Ursula Moul orders contamination information kept in official channels only, endorsed by Colonel John Abbott, recommends, “I do not believe we should alert anyone outside official channels of this potential problem”
30 Oct 96. Staff Summary, Brigadier General G. Haines to staff, decontamination and legal liabilities mentioned. Memo recommended “for information only”
9 Oct 96, Mr Ronald Black, AMARC, Talking Paper. Detailed the Aug 1996 testing by DO Consulting Ltd and ALTA on all C123s (17 in total.) "All samples tested positive for traces of dioxin."
16 Aug 96. Industrial Hygiene Survey C-123 Aircraft, DO Consulting Ltd for AMARG. Tested presence of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T. Water wipes confirmed herbicide contamination still present 25 years after last Vietnam spray missions
17 Apr 96. Memorandum for LGR from Mr. Wm. Emmer, Chief of Safety 355AMDS, who directed full personnel HAZMAT protection IAW AFR and USAF Surgeon General standards around all stored Davis-Monthan AFB stored C-123K airplanes
19 Dec 94. Memorandum for 645 Med Group/USAF Museum, Capt. Wade Weisman & Dr. Ron Porter, AF Staff Toxicologists. C-123 Tail #362 was “heavily contaminated on all test surfaces.” Recommended HAZMAT protection, decontamination. In 2000 Dr. Porter testified in a federal court action that the stored C-123 fleet was “a danger to public health” 
4 Oct 90. Penetration, Distribution and Kinetics of TCDD in Human Skin. Weber, et. al., Archives of Toxicology. Details dermal and other routes of TCDD absorption
Sept 1979. AF Armstrong Laboratories, C-123 Contamination Survey, W. Conway. On-site testing completed at Westover AFB, MA (Established contamination of C-123 Tail #362 (“Patches") 

1971: Last Agent Orange spray missions in Vietnam as Operation Ranch Hand concludes. C-123s dispersed, some transferred to governments of Thailand, South Vietnam, Cambodia and South Korea, and others flown back to the United States. Former spray aircraft were divested of spray tanks and associated equipment, and assigned to Hanscom AFB MA (but soon moved to Westover AFB MA,) Pittsburgh AFB PA and Rickenbacker AFB, Ohio. No decontamination efforts were undertaken, only general cleaning and maintenance.

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